The term Animal husbandry refers to the branch of agriculture science which deals with the caring, rearing and scientific breeding practices of the farm animals such as cattle, buffalo, fogs, sheep, goat and horses etc. The term also refers to the practice of selectively breeding and raising livestock to promote desirable traits in animals for utility, sport, pleasure, or research. It also includes poultry farming and fisheries.
Fisheries include rearing, catching, selling, etc. of fish, molluscs (shell fish) and crustaceans (Fresh water prawn- Palaemon, Crabs, etc.). Since long time, animals like bees and silkworm, have been used by humans. Livestock has been used by humans for products like milk, eggs, meat, wool, silk, honey, etc.
Importance of Animal Husbandry:
1. Dairy Products: Mammalian livestock can be used as a source of milk and dairy products such as yoghurt, cheese, butter, ice cream, etc.
2. Meat: It is the production of a useful form of dietary protein and energy.
3. Land management: The grazing of livestock is sometimes used as a way to control weeds and undergrowth. For example, in areas prone to wild fires, goats and sheep are set to graze on dry shrub which reduces the risk of fires.
4. Fibre: Livestock produce a range of fibre/textiles. For example, sheep and goats produce wool and deer and sheep can make leather.
5. Labour: Animals such as horses, donkey and yaks can be used for mechanical energy. Prior to steam power, livestock were the only available source of non-human labour. They are still used for this purpose in many places of the world, including ploughing fields, transporting goods and military functions.
6. Fertilizer: Manure can be spread on fields to increase crop yields. This is an important reason why historically, plant and animal domestication have been intimately linked. Manure is also used to make plaster for walls and floors and can be used as a fuel for fires. The blood and bones of animals are also used as fertilizer.
Animal Husbandry Chandigarh Scenario:
The department of Animal husbandry, Chandigarh administration came in to existence w.e.f 1st April 1978 after the bifurcation of the then Poultry Project. The Administrative functions of the department are supervised by Home Secretary as Administrative Secretary, Special Secretary Finance U.T. Chandigarh as Director, Animal husbandry. In the field, the department is looked after by the Joint Director, Animal Husbandry.
Aims and Objectives:
The Health & Veterinary care of livestock is the primary concern of the Animal Husbandry department, whose endeavourer is to ensure that the supply of milk and milk products, being the essential ingredients of good and nourishing food should come from healthy & disease free animals.
Functions: The main focus of the activities of the department is on: -
The development of the requisite infrastructure for improving the productivity.
The preservation & protection of livestock by providing proper health care facilities.
Increase in the production of major livestock products especially milk to meet the increasing per capita requirement.
The Union Territory of Chandigarh having only 26073 bovine populations is geographically related to the neighbouring states of Punjab & Haryana. Therefore the breeding policy adopted by Animal Husbandry, Punjab is followed and implemented in Union Territory Chandigarh. The Animal Husbandry Department has already switched over to Frozen Semen Technique, as the basic need of Chandigarh is to produce milk.
The crossbreeding of cattle is being taken up with semen of Holstein Ferestan and Jersey cows as per genetic conditions of the cattle.
The Murrah buffaloes semen is being used for breeding of buffaloes in U.T. Chandigarh
Animal Health & Veterinary Policy:
Without efficient health cover facilities it is not possible to obtain desired results of scientific techniques to improve genetic makeup of our best livestock & Poultry population to prevent production losses and to preserve the precious livestock wealth. There is network of Veterinary Hospitals in U.T Chandigarh to provide effective health cover to the livestock and to control conflagration of contagious diseases.
Following is the year wise database of the different information about the Animal Husbandry of Chandigarh: