The annual ground water resources of Chandigarh have only increased over the years owing to the well planned and scientific development of ground water resources, increased sustainability of existing abstraction structures and effective soil conservation practices. On the contrary, earlier as per Ground Water Resource Estimation (GWRE) 2013 Chandigarh was in Safe category but in GWRE 2017 (as per GEC 2015 methodology) Chandigarh is in Semi Critical Category. Reason being there is no ground water draft from shallow replenishable aquifers, however, the ground water is now being abstracted from deeper aquifer to the tune of 3378 MCM/Year (Net ground water draft). This has led to 89% level of ground water development. The available ground water resources have increased from 1943 ham to 3794 ham because supplied water and leakage have been taken into account.

 

Status of Ground Water

2009

2013

2017

2019

Annual Replenishable Ground Water Resources (MCM)

2173 ham

2159 ham

4216 ham

4216 ham

Provision for Industrial/Domestic and other uses & Natural Discharge etc.

217 ham

216 ham

422 ham

3320 ham

Available Ground Water Resource

1956 ham

1943 ham

3794 ham

3794 ham

Net  Ground Water Draft

N.A.

N.A

3378 ham

3378 ham

Balance Ground Water

1956 ham

1943 ham

416 ham

416 ham

Level of Ground Water Development

N.A.

N.A

89%

89%

Categorization

N.A.

N.A

Safe

Semi-Critical

 

Source: Scientist ‘D’ & TS for Regional Director, Superintending Hydrogeologist for Reg. Dir. Ground Water Board, Chandigarh

 

Water Conservation Practices in Chandigarh

 

Owing to Chandigarh’s well laid out drainage system, tapping storm water and progressive channeling it into recharge trenches can not only tackle the ground water decline but also solve the flooding problem of the area. Thus, Chandigarh has a capacity to tap and harvest 70% of the rain that goes into water drains. The percentage of draining in different zones are mentioned below-

Residential Areas

38%

Roads

20%

Public and Institutional Buildings

10%

Commercial Areas

5%

Source: Capturing rainwater: A way to augment Chandigarh’s water resources. Centre for science and Environment, June 2010.

 

 

The total Capacity of water be available for recharge annually is: 58 sq km (area) x 1059.3 (rainfall) x 0.5 (rainfall coefficient) = 30,720 million litres. In order to reduce the dependence on ground water a short time legal frameworks have been laid down by the administration to make provisions for rain water harvesting mandatory vide notification dated 16.10.2008. while granting the additional covered area to buildings with size above 500 sq km .

 

 

Futuristic Demand, Annual Rainfall and Water Consumption in Chandigarh

 

The annual average rainfall of Chandigarh is 1059.3 mm which is calculated to be 60380.1 million litres or 13241 gallons or 36.28 MGD per annum. Chandigarh is recipient to heavy rainfall during the months from July to September. This is a vital source of water that helps rejuvenate ground water resources and various other aquifers present at different locations in the city. On one hand, Chandigarh is a rapidly growing city and in the last decade (2001-2011), its growth rate has been observed to shoot higher. There will be an increment of 60% in the overall population of Chandigarh from 2011 to 2036.Thus the demand for water in Chandigarh has increased and will continue to do so. It is estimated that by 2026, the water demand will be 523.41 MLD (Million Litres per day), i.e. 22.73% higher than 2011 demand of 426.50 MLD. This shortage could be due to lack of a proper framework, inefficient guidelines, inadequate soil management practices, unsustainable activities like excessive pumping of ground water. Due to such actions, ground water levels at different locations of many aquifers in Chandigarh have been suppressed on an average of 4m in the past 6 years.

 

Year

Population in Lac

Domestic Requirement @150 LPCD In MLD

Industrial Commerical Requirement in MLD

Community Institutional Requirement in MLD

Total Leakage MLD

Total Reqirement

Horticulture Requirement in MLD

Gross Requirement MLD

2026

24.19

362.85

39.27

62.28

40.05

540.74

161.8

702.54

2031

29.46

441.9

40.82

64.76

47.33

639

161.8

800.8

2036

35.91

538.65

42.46

67.35

56.19

758.51

161.8

920.31

Source: Climate Action Plan, UT., Chandigarh

 

 

Year

Pre Monsoon Water Level Range

Post Monsoon Water Level Range

2015

3.07-38.47 m bgl

2.72-39.67 m bgl

2016

3.09-30.97 m bgl

2.82-28.85 m bgl

2017

2.75-42.52 m bgl

2.44- 41.16 m bgl

2018

4.29-42.38 m bgl

2.66- 32.82 m bgl

2019

3.39-41.61 m bgl

2.87-41.87 m bgl

 Source: Scientist' D' & TS For Regional Director, Suprintending Hydrogeologist For Regional Director Ground Water Board Chandigarh.


Year

2015-16

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

Total Domestic Consumption Urban Rural ( In Kilolitre)

82240208

84741421

83073076

14458108

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Executive Engg., MCPH, Div 2, No. of Water Works & Water Consumption; Statistical Abstract Chandigarh.

 

 

Aquifer Yield of Chandigarh

Year

Shallow Unconfined Aquifer)

Deep (Confined Aquifer)

Unit

2001

5-10

20-45

mbgl

2019

3.39-41.61

33.16-100

mbgl

Source: Scientist ‘D’; Central Ground Water Board, U.T. Chandigarh

 

The water level of confined and unconfined aquifers in Chandigarh have increased from 10 meter below ground level (mbgl) to 41.61 mbgl for shallow aquifers and 45 mbgl to 100 mbgl for deep confined aquifers. In addition, the depth of shallow borewells in Chandigarh is about 90 m and 240-305 m for deep borewells and have a suitable artificial recharge system in the form of Trench cum recharge well and check dams in hilly/ forest areas.

 

Drinking Water Status

 

In terms of drinkable water, Chandigarh is fully covered and well equipped with 10 hours per day of potable water supply with two essential water sources, namely deep tube well and canal water. The number of stand posts with proper platform drainage facilities are upto 720. The length of pipelines from Kajauli water works to Chandigarh is approx- 27.50 KM x 4.Tap stands distributes water many users, it should thus be our social obligation to turn off these public taps when not in use and put our best foot forward on an individual level for their efficient maintenance. Chandigarh households have a total of 156668 number of connections.

 

Year

Covered Status (Not Covered Partially Covered)

Level of Supply (LPCD)

No of Existing Water Source

Type of Water Source

No of Stand Post Taps

No of Stand Posts With Platform Drainage Arrangements

Total No of House Connection

2014-15

100%

Potable Water 10 Hrs Per Day

2

Canal Water & Deep Bore Tubewells

319 No's

319 No's

158363 No's

2015-16

100%

Potable Water 10 Hrs Per Day

2

Canal Water & Deep Bore Tubewells

720 No's

720 No's

142633 No's

2016-17

100%

Potable Water 10 Hrs Per Day

2

Canal Water & Deep Bore Tubewells

720 No's

720 No's

156668 No's

2017-18

100%

Potable Water 10 Hrs Per Day

2

Canal Water & Deep Bore Tubewells

720 No's

720 No's

156668 No's

2018-19

100%

Potable Water 10 Hrs Per Day

2

Canal Water & Deep Bore Tubewells

720 No's

720 No's

156668 No's

Source:Executive Eng., MCPH, Div.1, 2 & 3, O.S.D. Chief Engg., Chandigarh. Superintending Engineer, MCPH Circle, Chandigarh.

 

 

Water Connections

 

Year

Domestic Connections

Commercial Connections

Total length of Pipelines laid

2016-17

134879 No's

21789 No's

1313 Km's (Including 4 Nos X 27.5 Km's Line From Kajauli to Water Works Sector-39 Chandigarh)

2017-18

134879 No's

21789 No's

1313 Km's (Including 4 Nos X 27.5 Km's Line From Kajauli to Water Works Sector-39 Chandigarh)

2018-19

134879 No's

21789 No's

1313 Km's (Including 4 Nos X 27.5 Km's Line From Kajauli to Water Works Sector-39 Chandigarh)

2019-20

165819 No's

8578  No's

104.18 Km's (W.S)

       Source: Executive Engg., MCPH, Div 2, Chandigarh.

 

The steep growth in the population had also increased the demand of water for daily purposes. Water supply in Chandigarh is regulated by the Municipal Corporation of the city and it was calculated that the total domestic water connections have increased from 134879 in 2018 to 165819 in 2019. On the contrary, the total number of commercial water connections has decreased because usually these connections are temporary in nature, which are disconnected when not in use. Thus there number has decreased from 21789 in 2018 to 8578 in 2019.