System.Data.SqlClient.SqlException: Timeout expired. The timeout period elapsed prior to completion of the operation or the server is not responding. at System.Data.SqlClient.SqlConnection.OnError(SqlException exception, Boolean breakConnection) at System.Data.SqlClient.TdsParser.ThrowExceptionAndWarning(TdsParserStateObject stateObj) at System.Data.SqlClient.TdsParser.Run(RunBehavior runBehavior, SqlCommand cmdHandler, SqlDataReader dataStream, BulkCopySimpleResultSet bulkCopyHandler, TdsParserStateObject stateObj) at System.Data.SqlClient.SqlDataReader.ConsumeMetaData() at System.Data.SqlClient.SqlDataReader.get_MetaData() at System.Data.SqlClient.SqlCommand.FinishExecuteReader(SqlDataReader ds, RunBehavior runBehavior, String resetOptionsString) at System.Data.SqlClient.SqlCommand.RunExecuteReaderTds(CommandBehavior cmdBehavior, RunBehavior runBehavior, Boolean returnStream, Boolean async) at System.Data.SqlClient.SqlCommand.RunExecuteReader(CommandBehavior cmdBehavior, RunBehavior runBehavior, Boolean returnStream, String method, DbAsyncResult result) at System.Data.SqlClient.SqlCommand.RunExecuteReader(CommandBehavior cmdBehavior, RunBehavior runBehavior, Boolean returnStream, String method) at System.Data.SqlClient.SqlCommand.ExecuteReader(CommandBehavior behavior, String method) at System.Data.SqlClient.SqlCommand.ExecuteReader(CommandBehavior behavior) at connection.fetchcols_dr(String TableName, String tabFields, String cond) in e:\netdocs\chenvis\App_Code\connection.cs:line 194System.NullReferenceException: Object reference not set to an instance of an object. at connection.getname(String tablename, String reqField, String cond) in e:\netdocs\chenvis\App_Code\connection.cs:line 1222 UN group agrees to first CO2 emission standards for aircraft
SUBJECT :CLIMATE CHANGE 

 Global aviation experts agreed on Monday to the world’s first carbon dioxide emissions standards for new and existing aircraft programs, in a deal that environmental groups said does not go far enough.

The new standards, aimed at makers of small and large planes alike, will apply to all new aircraft models launched after 2020, the Montreal-based United Nations aviation agency said.

They will also be phased in for existing aircraft programmes being built from 2023, with a cut-off date of 2028 for planes that do not comply with the new standards.

The standards, agreed to after six years of talks, must still be approved by the International Civil Aviation Organization's governing council. The standards would become mandatory for national aviation authorities around the world.

The new standards would reduce as much as 650 million tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions between 2020 and 2040, according to White House estimates. Environmental group Transport and Environment, however, estimated reductions closer to 300 million tonnes over the same period.

"The proposal will only require CO2 reductions from new aircraft of 4 per cent over 12 years, when market forces alone are predicted to achieve more than a 10 per cent efficiency gain in the same time frame," Drew Kodjak, executive director of the International Council on Clean Transportation, said in a statement.

The new standards would not apply to existing aircraft in service. To meet the proposed standards, manufacturers will need to make lighter planes with more fuel efficient engines. Some planemakers are already planning to make changes.

"It will influence the R&D budgets at the plane and engine makers that already are focused on fuel burn and make sure that remains a continued emphasis," said one industry expert.

Technical documents presented during the talks suggested the new rules could affect Boeing and Airbus Group SE production of the largest jetliners and freighters, including the 747, 767 freighter and Airbus A380 jumbojet.

Boeing and Airbus representatives could not be immediately reached for comment.

"This outcome was the minimum needed from ICAO for a credible first start," said Bill Hemmings, aviation director for the Brussels-based Transport & Environment.

Planes weighing 60 tonnes or more, which include commercial passenger jets, generate the majority of carbon dioxide emissions from the aviation sector.

Negotiators from 22 countries have been trying to come up with the world's first carbon dioxide emissions standards for aircraft as part of the industry's contribution to efforts to combat climate change. Aviation was not included in the global climate deal reached at a UN conference in Paris in December, but the ICAO had been trying to nail down the standard as the first of a two-part strategy after six years of talks.

It is due to finalise a market-based mechanism for all airlines later this year.

Source: The Tribune, Chandigarh