Chandigarh, “The City Beautiful” is located at the foothills of picturesque Shivaliks was once the home of the Harappans. This city was dreamt as a model urban centre by first Prime Minister, Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru. The city was planned by the famous architect Le Corbusier. Since the medieval through modern era, the area was part of the large and prosperous Punjab Province which was divided into East & West Punjab during partition of the country in 1947. The city was conceived not only to serve as the capital of East Punjab, but also to resettle thousands of refugees who had been uprooted from West Punjab. In March, 1948, the Government of Punjab, in consultation with the Government of India, approved the area of the foothills of the Shivaliks as the site for the new capital. The location of the city site was a part of the erstwhile Ambala district as per the 1892-93 gazetteer of District Ambala. The foundation stone of the city was laid in 1952. Subsequently, at the time of reorganization of the state on 01.11.1966 into Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh, the city assumed the unique distinction of being the capital city of both, Punjab and Haryana while it itself was declared as a Union Territory and under the direct control of the Central Government.

Population Growth in the City

Union Territory Chandigarh has an area of 114 km2 (25.42 km2 of
Sukhna Wild Life Sanctuary) lying at the longitude 760 47' 14E and latitu
de 300 44' 14N. The altitude of the region varies between 304-365 meters above MSL with 1% drainage gradient. The current population of UT Chandigarh is about 10.54 lacs as per 2011 census of which the urban population is 10,25,682 (97.25%) and rural population is 29,004 (2.75%) and has recorded population growth rate of about 1.7% between the last two censuses. Literacy rate – 86.77%, sex ratio 81.75 (817 females per 1000 male) and infant mortality ratio is 28 (India’s infant mortality rate is 53), UT Chandigarh was planned for a population of half-a-million. Demographic data indicate that between 1961 and 1971, the population increased by 144.59 %, one of the highest for urban areas in India. According to 1981 census, it grew by another 75.55 %, followed by 42.16 %in 1991 and by 40.33 % in 2001 (with a total population of 900,635). By 2021 the population of Chandigarh is projected to be around 19.5 lacs (at current rate of growth) almost four times for which it was originally built.


The Union Territory of Chandigarh is located in the foothills of the Shivalik hill ranges in the north, which form a part of the fragile Himalayan ecosystem. It is occupied by Kandi (Bhabhar) in the north east and Sirowal (Tarai) and alluvial plains in the remaining part. The subsurface formation comprises of beds of boulders, pebbles, sand, silt, clays and some gravels. The area is drained by two seasonal rivulets viz. Sukhna Choe in the east and Patiala-Ki-Rao Choe in the west. The central part forms a surface water divide and has two minor streams. The stream passing through the central part is called N-Choe and the other is Choe which initiates at Sector 29.


Chandigarh falls under Koeppen's CWG category i.e. it has cold dry winter, hot summer and sub tropical monsoon. Evaporation usually exceeds precipitation and the weather is generally dry. Chandigarh experiences four seasons: (i) Summer or hot season (mid-March to Mid-June) (ii) Rainy season (late-June to mid-September); (iii) Post monsoon autumn/transition season (mid September to mid-November); (iv) Winter (mid November to mid-March). The dry spell of summer is long but with the occasional drizzles or thunder storms. May and June are the hottest months of the year with the mean daily maximum & minimum temperatures being about 370C & 250C, respectively. Maximum temperatures can rise up to 44oC. Southwest monsoons with high intensity showers commence in late June. The weather at this time is hot and humid. The variation in annual rainfall on year to year basis is appreciable i.e. 700 mm to 1200 mm. The 20 year average rainfall for UT Chandigarh is 1100.7 mm. January is the coldest month with mean and minimum temperatures being around 23oC and 3.60oC respectively. Winds are generally light and blow from northwest to southeast direction with exception of easterly to southeasterly winds that blow on some days during the summer season.

Park Areas

Ample areas have been provided in the master plan of the Capital for parks. Out of a total area of 20,000 acres acquired for the first phase, about 2000 acres are meant for development of parks. Leisure Valley, Rajendra park, Bougainvillea Park, Zakir Rose Garden, Shanti Kunj, Hibiscus Garden, Garden of Fragrance, Botanical Garden, Smriti Upavan, Topiary garden and Terraced Garden are some of the famous parks of Chandigarh. Sukhna Lake, Rock Garden, Government Museum and Art Gallery are major tourist attractions of UT Chandigarh. Tree plantation and landscaping has been an integral part of the city’s Master Plan. Twenty six different types of flowering and 22 species of evergreen trees have been planted along the roads, in parking areas, shopping complexes, residential areas and in the city parks, to ameliorate the harsh climate of the region, especially the hot and scorching summers.


The industrial area comprises 2.35 km2, set-aside in the Master Plan for non-polluting, light industry on the extreme southeastern side of the city near the railway line, as far away from the Educational Sectors and Capitol Complex as possible.


The Union Territory Chandigarh has a limited area under agriculture. The agriculture land is being gradually acquired for the expansion of Chandigarh City. The Cultivated area has shrunk from 5441 hectares in 1966 to 1085 hectares in 2011-12. 880 farming families cultivate this area. The main sources of irrigation are deep-bore tube-wells installed by the UT Chandigarh Administration and shallow tube-wells installed by individual farmers. The farmers of UT Chandigarh who keep large number of milch cattle have taken to fodder cultivation to cater the demand of milch cattle. Therefore, the area under food grain crops is decreasing. 

Water Resources

The present water supply service area of Municipal Corporations Chandigarh (MCC) is 114 km2, which includes MCC area 79.34 km2 and rural area of 34.69 km2. The urban area falls in jurisdiction of MC and the water supply system is entrusted to Public Health wing of MCC. The rural area comprises of 13 villages overseen by the Engineering Department. The urban/rural areas have water source of 67 MGD from Bhakra Main Canal and 20 MGD from 239 tube wells located in the city. The transmission mains carry raw water from Kajuali to the water treatment plants located at Sector 39, where, the water is treated and transmitted to 7 No. subsidiary water works located in Sectors 12, 26, 32, 37, 52 and Manimajra. The average availability of water in Chandigarh is reasonably high at 332 Liters per Capita per Day (LPCD), stands second in the country after Goa (343 LPCD).


The major attraction in UT Chandigarh is Sukhna Lake Located in Sector 1, the Sukhna Lake is an artificial reservoir. There is a walking path, a cafeteria, shops and a mini-amusement park and paddleboats. The Sukhna Lake was created in 1958 by damming the Sukhna Choe, a seasonal stream that flows down from the Shivaliks. This lake harbors many migratory exotic birds.

1. Ground water resource in UT Chandigarh: 

Ground Water Resources of Chandigarh have been estimated for the water table aquifer as on 31.03.2004 by taking into account the following data into consideration:

·  The total habitable geographical area of UT Chandigarh is 114 km2 and all of it is suitable for practicing ground water recharge.

·  The depth to water level in shallow aquifers ranged from 4.62 to 22.49 m bgl (below ground level) during Pre-monsoon while it was 2.98 m to 20.50 m bgl during Post monsoon of 2013.

·  Specific yield in the zone of water table fluctuation was taken as 12% and Rainfall infiltration factor as 20% (as per norms).

·  As per information available, there was no pumpage/ground water draft from shallow aquifers.

·  Irrigation was being done by deep Government tubewells only. The net irrigated area was 750 ha only.

·  There were 37 irrigation tubewells managed by UT Chandigarh Administration in the various villages of the city. The depth of these wells is in the range of 180 m-250 m. These tubewells tap confined aquifers below 78 m from ground level. The annual unit draft was 21.74 hectare meters (hams) and gross draft was 804 hams (8.04 MCM).

·  There were 239 tubewells for drinking water supply to the rural and urban population. These tubewells tap confined aquifers below 90 m from ground level. The depth of these wells ranges from 200-300 m. The average unit well draft of these wells was 25.15 hams. The annual draft from these tubewells was 4401 ham (44.01 MCM).


The ground water resource of shallow aquifer in UT Chandigarh as on 31.03.2009 was as follows:

        Recharge from rainfall during monsoon                                        = 1580 ham

        Recharge from other source during monsoon                           = 100 ham

        Recharge from rainfall during non-monsoon                              = 500 ham

        Recharge from other sources during non-monsoon                = 100 ham

        Total annual ground water recharge                                              = 2255 ham

        Natural discharge during non-monsoon                                       = 200 ham

        Ground Water Draft as on 31.3.2004                                              = nil

        Net annual ground water availability                                              = 2030 ham


It has been estimated that the annual replanishable ground water resources (Net Ground Water Availability) of UT Chandigarh were 2030 hams as on 31st March 2009. This estimation is based on the study published by Central Ground water Board, Ministry of Water Resources, GOI, Faridabad in 2013. These are dynamic ground water resources that are likely to be replenished every year under normal rainfall.


The Engineering Department of UT Chandigarh Administration is responsible for creating entire infrastructure development in the territory of Chandigarh comprising of roads and establishment of Water, providing and laying of water supply system, providing and laying underground sewerage and storm water drainage system, distribution of electric power and construction of various public buildings and housing accommodation for govt. employees of various categories. In addition, most of the buildings as occupied by Punjab and Haryana Governments have been constructed and are being maintained by the Engineering Department. At present infra-structural services are being maintained by the Municipal Corporation being of public utility but development of these services in sectors covered under Phase- III are being executed by the Engineering Department. To keep up the pace of development in compatibility to population growth of city, the building activity in the city is continuing and adequate funds are being provided under Plan schemes of the Administration.


Construction Circle-I undertakes the maintenance of GMCH, Sector 32, OPD Block Sector 16, Paryavaran Bhawan, extension of Government Schools etc.; repair and maintenance of V1, V2, V3 roads of Northern Sectors.


Construction Circle-II handles the work of maintenance of various Government buildings, repair and maintenance of V1, V2 & V3 roads of Southern Sectors and Horticulture works in UT Chandigarh. Public Health Circle looks after rural water supply, rural sewerage, and development of infrastructural services; providing and laying internal water supply and sanitary system in non-residential and residential building including their maintenance; providing and installation of air-conditioning, fire fighting system including operation and maintenance thereof. In addition this circle also looks at setting up of Govt. Medical College & Hospital, air-conditioning system, fire fighting system, medical gases distribution and solar water heating system are being provided and maintained. Besides above works, the sewerage water supply lines in 3rd Phase Sector i.e. Sector 48 to 52 have also been undertaken. The S.W.D. for area West of Sector 38 has been provided & laying of S.W.D. for sectors 54, 55 and 56 is also under execution. The SWD for the remaining sectors of Phase- III has been planned.


Electrical Circle provides installation of internal electrical services in all the non-residential and residential building including maintenance thereof; electrification works for infrastructural development; modernization and upgradation of ATC signals at various junctions and intersections; works of fire sensing system and passenger lifts in multi-storey buildings including maintenance thereof. Electricity Operation is responsible for arranging power from various sources (as UT Chandigarh does not have its own source) and distribution and transmission thereof to all type of consumers. Power is being purchased from BBMB against 3.5% share of UT; special assistance at global rates from BBMB; from NTPC, NHPC, NPCIL etc. Present power entitlement is 250 MW. The peak demand for last year touched 272 MW and this year it has reached 363 MW.

Forest & Wildlife

Total forest and other areas managed by Forest Department in UT Chandigarh are 3436 hectares comprising of Sukhna Wildlife Sanctuary 2598 ha, Reserved Forest, Un-classed Forest and other areas. In the city the Horticulture wing of Municipal Corporation and Engineering Department maintains and takes up the plantation on the road side, gardens, parks and other vacant revenue land.

The Forest Department is taking up various activities for improving the green cover of UT Chandigarh, conserving and protecting the Wildlife, creating awareness among the people of Chandigarh about the protection of flora, fauna, preservation & restoration of bio-diversity. To increase green cover in UT Chandigarh, “Annual Greening Chandigarh Action Plan” is being prepared and released for implementation by all greening departments every year. By successful implementation of ongoing schemes like- Forest Conservation & Development, Social & Farm Forestry, Preservation of Wildlife etc the quality and quantity of forest and wildlife has improved significantly over the years, which was acknowledged by the Ministry of Environment & Forest, Government of India by providing the prestigious Indira Priyadarshini Vriksha Mitra Award-2010 for outstanding work in increasing forest & tree cover in the city. For Ex-Situ and In –Situ Conservation of the flora of Shiwalik region in particular and others in general department of forest is developing a Botanical Garden, spread over in 176 Acre area.


 A total of 678 health care units are available in UT Chandigarh[1]. Of these there are 7 Government hospitals, 452 clinics, 16 nursing homes, 60 dispensaries, 86 pathological labs are available as on 2011. Government Multi Specialty Hospital, Sector 16, Chandigarh earlier known as General Hospital, is the oldest hospital in the city which is well connected by rail, road and air. The hospital is situated on Madhya Marg of the city, just 300 m from the well known Rose Garden, at Sector 16, Chandigarh. This is a patient friendly hospital, known for prompt and efficient services. It caters to the needs of all alike. This 500 bedded hospital has 24 hrs round the clock emergency and indoor facilities manned by specialists.


The city is experiencing continuous rise in temperature from last decade. This rising temperature has a direct impact on the rise in respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The continuous rise in the motor vehicles numbers and concrete construction has lead to dust storms and free suspended particulate leading to air pollution. Also, the city has green plantation more of the exotic plants which leads to exposure to pollens and aeroallergens that trigger diseases like asthma. With the rising urbanization and better living standards, the city people are more prone to life style diseases. There is rise in number of cases reporting to the Hospitals with Hypertension, Obesity, Cardiovascular diseases. Geographically, the city lies in the high risk earthquakes zone; there is always a risk of disasters to occur. Earlier the city has construction limits of up to three floors of the maximum, but in the recent city has come up with many high rising buildings.

Urban Planning

The Department of Urban Planning consists of two wings (Architecture and Town Planning). The Architecture Wing deals with the designing of Govt. buildings, Standard designs, architectural and frame control etc. whereas the Town Planning Wing prepares scheme for the implementation of Master Plan, Planning of new areas/Sectors, Zoning Plans, besides identifying land use zones. The technical advices on the projects like structural, public health and electrical are forwarded by the engineering Department to the Chief Architect and overall coordination of the different Engineering Services is done by the Architectural Wing both at the drawing board level as well as in the field. The Department also deals with the concept approval of different categories of buildings/societies, besides scrutiny of building plans. The Department plays a pivotal role in the Plan Advisory Committee (Upper and Lower). The Town Planning Wing deals with the Planning and earmarking of land for the allotment to the Institutions/Societies. The Department also deals with zoning regulations and architectural control and standard design to the public on payment basis. In addition to the normal workload of the Capital projects, the Department also deals with the projects of the others states/Central govt. and public Sector Undertakings as Deposit works.



Chandigarh Transport Undertaking (CTU) came in to existence in 1966 with a fleet of 30 buses and at present has a sanctioned fleet of 517 buses (out of which 100 busses are from JNNRUM). Out  of these, 250 buses run on local routes, 75 buses runs on Sub-Urban routes,167 buses run on long routes (Interstate routes covering Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttrakhand, Rajasthan, Delhi, J&K etc). Chandigarh Transport Undertaking buses travel approx.1.20 lacs. Kms per day and approx.2.00 lacs commuters commutes daily in Chandigarh Transport Undertaking buses that include commuters of Local, Sub Urban and long route buses. However, in addition to the CTU, there are about 1870 busses from other state transport corporations run from the Interstate Bus terminus at Sector 17 and 43. 


There are about 2950 Small Scale and 15 Large and Medium Scale Units in existence in UT Chandigarh[1] as on date. Growth of industry for the last few years has been limited in Chandigarh as it is not an industry led city because of the limited space ENVISaged for industrial development at the time of original planning of the city. However, still keeping in view the fact that industry would provide crucial resource base in the city, a limited area of about 1450 acres was planned for development as industrial area mainly for the development of small scale and pollution free industries. As per Chandigarh Pollution Control Committee there are 193 red, 137 orange and 627 green categories of Industries as per their data during 2011 indicating Chandigarh has large number of environmental friendly industries.


Out of a total of about 2950 small scale industries in Chandigarh about 40% are ancillary units producing components for the major tractor industry around Chandigarh. Light engineering industry is heavily represented, other industrial units produce mainly industrial fasteners, electrical / electronic items, machine tools, pharmaceuticals, plastic goods, sanitary fittings, steel / wooden furniture and food products etc. A number of items manufactured here are finding ready markets abroad. The total estimated annual output of industries is to be tune of Rs. 650 crores. Land availability for industries is a major constraint and there little scope for further expansion of industry, apart from the existing Industrial Area Phase-I and Phase-II.


Chandigarh Administration earmarked 1475 acres of land for Industrial Area, Phase-I & II which came into existence during the year 1970. The Administration has also developed Industrial Area, Phase-III in Mauli Jagraon for which an area of 152 acres of land has been earmarked. UT Chandigarh has nearly 2100 small scale industrial units including one large and 7 medium scale units located on the outskirt and separated with a green belt. These units manufacture a wide variety of products with an annual turnover of nearly 1430 crores. 20 units are exporting their products worth about Rs. 151 crores. The Industrial Area in UT Chandigarh has been given the name of Chandigarh Industrial Business Park.


The UT Chandigarh Administration is focusing on promotion of Information Technology (IT) industry which requires lesser space and is also non-polluting. Accordingly, high speed data communication facilities for software development and its export has been arranged by providing a NODE at Punjab Engineering College (PEC), Chandigarh through the Software Technology Parks of India - STPI - (an autonomous Society under the Department. of Electronics, Govt. of India) which has set up an earth station at Mohali for the proposed Software Technology Park / Complex being set up by the Punjab Govt. About 10,000 ft2 space has been earmarked in the PEC campus for being rented out to the desirous entrepreneurs at fixed rates.


Several laws govern the functioning of this department. They include:

·         The Industrial Development (Regulation) Act, 1956 [For small scale industries registration, the department follows the instructions of the Union Development Commissioner, Small Scale Industries],

·         Electrical Wires, Cables, Appliances and Accessories (Quality Control) Order, 1993,

·         The Cement (Quality Control) Order. 1995, and

·         The Oils and Greases (Processing, Supply and Distribution Regulation) Order, 1987.

Source: Climate Change, SOER